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Bei Maxtor sind sie (bezüglich SCSI) ehrlich !!

Wenn Sie den weiter unten folgenden Text (aus der SCSI FAQ Datenbank entnommen) übersetzen, kommen Sie schnell auf die Kernaussagen.

Megabits pro Sekunde oder MegaBytes/s ?

Hersteller geben gern die interne Datenrate innerhalb einer Festplatte in Megabits pro Sekunde an. Das klingt nach viel. Maxtor rechnet das fairer Weise in externe MegaBytes/s um und zieht dann mindestens 30% ab für den Wasserkopf beim SCSI Transfer. Das stimmt etwa. Das haben wir dann auch so nachgemessen.

 

Also Ultra 160 z.B. bedeutet eine maximale brutto Datenrate von 160 Megabyte pro Sekunde. Das schein viel. Legt man das bei einem Raid 5 auf 10 Platten um, die ja nahezu gleichzeitig mit den 10 Raid Brocken versorgt werden sollen, dann bleiben nur 1/10tel davon, also 16 MB/s brutto übrig. Zieht man davon dann nochmal die unproduktiven 30% bis 50% SCSI-Bus Geschwätzigkeit ab, so sind es ganz traurige 8 bis 10 MB/s pro Platte, die die 10 Platten wirklich noch netto verarbeiten.

Hier also bei Maxtor abgeschrieben :

Hintergrund : Die Quantum/Maxtor Atlas V SCSI Platte ist nachweislich wirklich eine der allerschnellsten Platten auf dem Markt überhaupt. Die anderen SCSI Platten von Seagate, Fujitsu oder IBM (jetzt Hitachi) usw. sind inzwischen ähnlich schnell oder nur geringfügig "anders".

 

The following specifications are from the Quantum® Atlas V SCSI drive. These numbers are used for example, but the same calculations apply to ATA drives. Notice that the internal data transfer rate is listed as sustained (andauernd, dauerhaft), while the external data tranfer rate is listed as burst (absolute Spitze).

 

 

  • INTERNAL DATA TRANSFER RATE (Megabits/sec.) 194 to 340 (sustained)
  • EXTERNAL DATA TRANSFER RATE - Buffer to SCSI controller (Megabytes/Sec) Ultra160 = 160 MB/Sec. (burst)

 

 

As there are 8 bits to a byte, and 8 Megabits (Mb) to a Megabyte (MB), we divide 194 Mbits/sec. by 8 to get 24.25 MegaBytes/sec. The drive should sustain a transfer rate of 24.25 MB/sec. from the drive platters (den Scheiben) to the read/write heads, even under the worst possible (schlimmst möglichen) conditions. The lower number of the range measures data transfer from the inner diameter of the drive platters, where there are the least amount of sectors per track.

The higher number of the range measures data transfer from the outer diameter of the drive platters, where the number of sectors is higher per track. Using the higher number of the range (340), the result is 42.5 MB/Sec. We then have a data rate in Megabytes from 24.25 to 42.5 MB/sec.

 

Since this is an 'internal' data transfer rate, consider it as the raw data rate. Some of this internal rate is lost when translating to the user data rate, because this raw data includes coding overhead that adds length to the user's data. Add a 25% allowance (more for some drives) for system overhead. In the case of the Atlas V SCSI drive, the overhead is approximately 30%.

The sustained (user) data rates are actually listed at 17 to 29 MB/Sec. For drives where only the internal data rate is listed, the formula ([Internal rate in Mb/8] x .75 = Approx. data rate in MB) is used to develop an approximate user data rate.

 

Most of the time you won't be getting the lowest sustained transfer performance or the highest, so we should find an average. Using the average of the sustained transfer rates ([17+29]/2=23), you receive an expected average sustained data transfer rate of 23 Mbytes/sec.

 

It's very important to realize how these numbers are presented. The internal data rate shown here is expressed in Megabits/sec, the user data rate is written in Megabytes/sec. Certainly, we can tell you, assuming your SCSI (or ATA) subsystem is configured correctly, what your expected sustained transfer rates should be. In this case, a sustained transfer rate of 17 MBytes/sec. to 29MBytes/sec. is acceptable for Atlas V. Your transfer rates may be higher--or lower.

 

If your sustained user data rates are lower than expected, this indicates a bottleneck in the system. A failing device, improper configuration, and termination issues are leading causes for poor performance. Be aware that transfer rates can be reduced, caused by several issues--poor quality cables, improper cable routing (causes signal reflection), SCSI Single Ended devices on an LVD SCSI bus, host limitations and more. It is commonly said that over 99% of poor performance issues are NOT drive related!

 

We have discussed both sustained and burst transfer rates. While you might expect to see 320 MB/sec. transfer from your SCSI Ultra 320 devices, or 133 MB/sec. from your Ultra ATA 133 drives, know that these specifications are the burst rate--what the drive's cache memory buffer can process under the absolute perfect combination of drive, cable, and hard drive controller conditions. Even ambient temperature affects transfer rates.

 

This is not the sustained transfer rate of the drive. It's what the input/output subsystem is capable of handling. For hard drives, sustained tranfer rates are an important benchmark. Only when combining several high-speed drives together (in a performance RAID array), does one approach 'bus saturation' speeds.

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Eine weitere Frage und die Antwort

Question :

Many factors contribute to disk drive performance. One useful measure is data throughput rate or sustained transfer rate--provided other system components can process the data as fast as the disk drive can read or write it. In general, higher data transfer rates from the disk to the SCSI controller lead to improved system performance. Data transfer rates are often quoted in the product manuals. Yet it is important to realize that controller overhead, SCSI cable and termination issues, are major factors that affect sustained data transfer rates.

(This FAQ applies to all SCSI hard disk drives: Atlas, Fireball, Viking.)

 

Answer :

The following specification is from the Quantum® Atlas V SCSI drive. These numbers are used for example:

SUSTAINED THROUGHPUT (MB/Sec) 17 to 29 B/Sec.

 

Note: For drives where only the internal transfer rate is listed, the formula ( [ Internal rate in Mb/8 ] x .75 = Approximate user rate in MB ) is used to develop an approximate user data rate.

Most of the time you won't be getting the lowest sustained performance or the highest, so we should find an average. Using the average of the sustained transfer rates ([17+29]/2=23), you receive an expected average sustained data rate of 23 Mbytes/sec.

It's very important to realize how these numbers are presented. The internal data rate is expressed in Megabits/sec, the user data rate is written in Megabytes/sec. Certainly we can tell you, assuming your SCSI (or ATA) subsystem is configured correctly, what your expected sustained transfer rates should be. In this case, a sustained transfer rate of 17 MBytes/sec. to 29 MBytes/sec. is acceptable for Atlas V. Your rates may be higher--or lower.

If your sustained user data rates are lower than expected, this indicates a bottleneck in the system. A failing device, improper configuration, and termination issues are leading causes for poor performance. Be aware that poor or low transfer rates can be caused by several issues--poor quality cables, improper cable routing (causes signal reflection), SCSI Single Ended devices on an LVD SCSI bus, host limitations and more. It is commonly said that over 99% of poor performance issues are NOT drive related!

While you might expect to see 160 MB/sec. from your Ultra160 devices, or 66 MB/sec. from your Ultra/66 drives, know that these specifications are the burst transfer rate--what the drive's cache memory buffer can process under absolutely perfect conditions. This is not the sustained rate of the drive. It's what the input/output subsystem is capable of handling. For hard drives, sustained rates are an important benchmark.

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